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Most people get HSV-1 herpes simplex type 1 as an infant or child. This virus can be spread by skin-to-skin contact with an adult who carries the virus.
An adult does not have to have sores to spread the virus. A person usually gets HSV-2 herpes simplex type 2 through sexual contact.
Some people are more likely to get HSV Herpes simplex viruses spread from person to person through close contact. You can get a herpes simplex virus from touching a herpes sore.
Most people, however, get herpes simplex from an infected person who does not have sores. How people get herpes around their mouth A person with HSV-1 herpes simplex type 1 can pass it to someone else by:.
Most people get genital herpes from HSV-2, which they get during sex. If someone has a cold sore and performs oral sex, this can spread HSV-1 to the genitals — and cause herpes sores on the genitals.
Mothers can give the herpes virus to their baby during childbirth. If the baby is born during the mother's first episode of genital herpes, the baby can have serious problems.
Once a person becomes infected with a herpes virus, the virus never leaves the body. After the first outbreak, the virus moves from the skin cells to nerve cells.
The virus stays in the nerve cells forever. But it usually just stays there. In this stage, the virus is said to be dormant, or asleep.
But it can become active again. During an outbreak, a dermatologist often can diagnose herpes simplex by looking at the sores.
To confirm that a patient has herpes simplex, a dermatologist may take a swab from a sore and send this swab to a laboratory. When sores are not present, other medical tests, such as blood tests, can find the herpes simplex virus.
There is no cure for herpes simplex. The good news is that sores often clear without treatment. Many people choose to treat herpes simplex because treatment can relieve symptoms and shorten an outbreak.
Most people are treated with an antiviral medicine. An antiviral cream or ointment can relieve the burning, itching, or tingling.
An antiviral medicine that is oral pills or intravenous shot can shorten an outbreak of herpes. Prescription antiviral medicines approved for the treatment of both types of herpes simplex include:.
Taken daily, these medicines can lessen the severity and frequency of outbreaks. They also can help prevent infected people from spreading the virus.
The first primary outbreak of herpes simplex is often the worst. Not all first outbreaks are severe, though.
Some are so mild that a person does not notice. When the first outbreak of genital herpes is mild and another outbreak happens years later, the person can mistake it for a first outbreak.
Some people have 1 outbreak. For others, the virus becomes active again. When they have another outbreak, it is called a recurrence.
These tend to be more common during the first year of infection. Over time, the outbreaks tend to become less frequent and milder.
This is because the body makes antibodies defenses to the virus. Serious complications rarely occur in healthy people with herpes simplex. They occur most often in unborn babies, newborns, and people who have a long-term illness or weak immune system.
If you have tingling, burning, itching, or tenderness where you had a herpes sore, keep that area of your body away from others.
Genital herpes herpes simplex type 2 When you have sores or symptoms do not have sex with uninfected partners. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B.
Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your head About nails: More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, hair, and nails.
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Home Public and patients Diseases and treatments Contagious skin diseases Herpes simplex. After clearing, herpes simplex sores can return.
When the sores return, the outbreak tends to be milder than the first outbreak. Overview Herpes simplex is a common viral infection. Other names for cold sores caused by HSV-1 are: Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms Herpes simplex: Who gets and causes Herpes simplex: Diagnosis and treatment Herpes simplex: How apt is the comparison?
In spite of scientific facts, the social stigma and emotional attitudes surrounding genital herpes can make it hard to compare it objectively with an oral infection that most people casually accept.
Following the unspoken assumptions of our society, many people still believe there is a "good" herpes virus-HSV- 1, the usual cause of cold sores-and a "bad" herpes virus-HSV-2, the usual cause of genital herpes.
In this feature, we take a look at HSV- 1 and 2 to see how alike and different the two viral types really are. We asked leading researchers how the two compare in terms of severity, recurrences, and transmission rates.
We asked how often each occurs outside its usual site of preference, and how each behaves in the genital area. We questioned how much immunity having one type orally or genitally provides against getting the second type.
In addition, we looked at the way our society views oral and genital herpes. What's behind the very different images the two types carry?
And what can we do about it? In an interview, counselors at the National Herpes Hotline suggest ways to help replace judgmental social assumptions with a healthy attitude.
Both types infect the body's mucosal surfaces, usually the mouth or genitals, and then establish latency in the nervous system.
For both types, at least two-thirds of infected people have no symptoms, or symptoms too mild to notice. However, both types can recur and spread even when no symptoms are present.
The primary difference between the two viral types is in where they typically establish latency in the body- their "site of preference.
From there, it tends to recur on the lower lip or face. HSV-2 usually sets up residence in the sacral ganglion at the base of the spine. From there, it recurs in the genital area.
Unfortunately, many people aren't aware of this, which contributes both to the spread of type 1 and to the misperception that the two types are fundamentally different.
The common myth is that HSV-1 causes a mild infection that is occasionally bothersome, but never dangerous. HSV-1 is usually mild, especially when it infects the lips, face, or genitals.
However, in some cases type 1 can recur spontaneously in the eye, causing ocular herpes, a potentially serious infection which can lead to blindness.
In very rare cases HSV- 1 can spread spontaneously to the brain, causing herpes encephalitis, a dangerous infection that can lead to death.
HSV-1 is also the usual cause of herpes whitlow, an infection on the finger, and "wrestler's herpes," herpes gladiatorum a herpes infection on the chest or face.
The range and potential severity of HSV-1 infections lead some experts to view the virus as more risky than usually perceived.
By comparison, HSV-2 is widely believed to be a painful, dangerous infection that affects only people with very active sex lives.
Like HSV-1, type 2 is usually mild-so mild that two- thirds of infected people don't even know they have it. Type 2 rarely causes complications or spreads to other parts of the body.
It is the most common cause of neonatal herpes, a rare but dangerous infection in newborns; however, type 1 causes up to one-third of neonatal infections.
The two types do behave somewhat differently depending on whether they are residing in their site of preference-the mouth and face for HSV-1, and the genital area for HSV But both types are quite common, and under most circumstances neither is a major health threat.
That's one reason medical professionals tend to dismiss HSV -2 despite the emotional trauma a diagnosis can cause for a patient.
While HSV can be a frustrating and painful condition for some people, in general the virus is less a medical problem than a social problem.
For most of us, genital herpes is no more dangerous than a cold sore. Just how much of a physical problem HSV poses for a person depends largely on three factors.
The first is how well the person's immune system is able to control the infection. Differences in immune response may be the main reason that some people are bothered by frequent cold sores or genital herpes outbreaks while others are not.
It's also the reason that both HSV-1 and 2 can pose serious challenges for infants, who have a limited immune response; and for people with compromised immune systems, including people with cancer, AIDS, severe burns, and people taking immunosuppressant medications.
The second factor affecting outbreaks is how long a person has had the infection. Over time, recurrences of both HSV- 1 and 2 tend to decrease, for reasons that aren't entirely clear.
In the case of oral HSV-1, many of the approximately million Americans who are infected acquired the virus when they were children.
On the other hand, almost all of the approximately 40 million Americans infected with HSV-2 acquired the virus as teenagers or adults.
In the first year, those who have recurring outbreaks experience an average of four to six episodes. Over time, as with oral infections, the number of outbreaks usually drops off.
A third factor influencing the frequency of HSV -1 and 2 outbreaks is whether the virus is established in its site of preference. While HSV can infect both genital and oral areas, both types cause milder infections when they are away from "home" territory.
Outside their site of preference, both type 1 and 2 lose most of their punch. For example, most people infected with HSV-1 in the genital area have few, if any, outbreaks after the initial episode, far fewer than is typical with either oral HSV-1 or genital HSV According to a study by Wald et al.
New England Journal of Medicine, , among women with genital herpes, the average number of recurrences per year for those with genital HSV-1 was zero.
Other studies have shown an average of about one outbreak per year Benedetti, Annals of Internal Medicine, Similarly, HSV-2 infection in theoral area-outside its site of preference-very rarely causes problems.
First of all, oral, HSV-2 infections are rare, for reasons discussed below. But even when an infection occurs, recurrent outbreaks are uncommon.
In one study Lafferty et al. A possible fourth factor affecting recurrence rate is viral type. The short answer is no.
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